Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an invisible form of light and energy given off primarily by the sun. Tanning beds are another form of UV radiation. Frequent and intense exposure to UV radiation is the major environmental risk factor for melanoma.
Periodic exposure to intense sunlight that results in a sunburn seems to be more directly linked to the development of melanoma than having continued daily sun exposure. This may mean that people who go on sunny vacations or participate in outdoor recreational activities should be especially careful in the sun.
As well, several studies show that frequent use of tanning booths and sunlamps is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma.
If you are more affected by the damaging rays of UV radiation, you are also at greater risk for developing melanoma.
If you have the following characteristics or conditions, you are at a higher risk of developing melanoma.
- Fair skin
- Red or blond hair
Poor tanning ability or an inability to tan
A history of one or more severe, blistering sunburns before the age of 18
The use of tanning beds, tanning booths, or sunlamps for medical or cosmetic purposes
- Numerous actinic keratoses, flat, pink, scaly spots that grow on sun-damaged skin of older, fair-skinned people
Lentigines, flat, brown, sometimes large spots found most often on the face, arms, chest, back, and backs of the hands, and associated with aging or sun-damaged skin
Less-common conditions that can put you at higher risk:
Taking psoralen and UVA (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis, particularly if you have received 250 treatments or more.
Xeroderma pigmentosum-a rare, inherited condition wherein the cellular machinery that constantly scans our DNA for damage and repairs it is broken. People with this condition cannot repair the daily changes that happen to their DNA. They are at enormously higher risk for developing skin cancer and cannot tolerate even small amounts of UV light.
Tanning booths and tanning beds also give off UV radiation and could raise your risk of developing melanoma.