What Is Sunburn
Sunburn is simply a burn or reddening and swelling in your skin resulting from excessive exposure to the sun's rays and damage to blood vessels. Sunburn may also occur from exposure to other UV light sources such as tanning salons.
At a cellular level, sunburn is associated with microscopic changes in the skin that can play an essential part in the body's immune defense system.
Signs and Symptoms of Sunburn
Signs and symptoms, which usually occur after 2 to 6 hours of exposure and peak at 12 to 24 hours, may include:
- Erythema (redness)
- Edema (swelling)
- Tenderness and/or irritation
- Skin feels hot to the touch
- Blistering (severe cases)
- Chills and fever (severe cases)
Around 4 to 7 days after exposure, skin may start to peel and flake off. In severe cases of sunburn, intense burning may result in second-degree burns, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, secondary infection, shock, or even death.
The treatment of sunburn is to provide relief of discomfort by the use of such things as analgesics (pain-killers), cool baths, aloe vera lotions, and moisturizers.
If you are inadvertently exposed and expect to be sunburned, you may lessen the severity of the burn with the following measures:
Take 2 aspirin immediately and then 2 every 4 hours
Apply a topical steroid to exposed areas twice daily for 2 or 3 days
These measure will not prevent the damage from a sunburn, but can alleviate some of the more uncomfortable symptoms associated with burning.
Prevention is better than the cure.
Sun protection is your best defense against sunburn and other damaging effects of UV radiation.
Avoid sun exposure, especially between 10AM and 4PM
Wear protective clothing, including wide-brimmed hats
Regularly apply sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of 30+
It is now clearly apparent that the long-term consequences of overexposure to the sun or other sources of UV radiation are significant:
Brown spots and freckles (lentigos) Also called liver spots or age spots
Development of premalignant lesions (solar keratoses)
Development of skin cancer (eg, melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma)
Protecting Children From Sunburn
Children are very susceptible to sunburn. One blistering sunburn in childhood is said to increase the likelihood of developing melanoma. Protecting the skin during childhood with appropriate sun protective behavior will establish a pattern for children to follow into adulthood.
- During the summer, do not let children go outdoors without sunscreen that has a sun protection factor (SPF) rating of 30 or higher-even on cloudy days.
- Make sure that your children stay out of the sun between 10AM and 4PM.
- Keep babies who are 6 months or younger out of the sun whenever possible.
Factors That Increase the Incidence of Sunburn:
Regions situated closer to the equator.
Areas at high altitude - UV radiation increases 4% for every 300-meter increase in elevation.
Skin exposure between 10 AM and 4 PM - 65% of UV radiation reaches the earth between these times.
Clear skies: clouds and environmental pollution reduce UV radiation.
Environmental reflection - UV radiation is 80% reflected by snow and ice.