Stages of Melanoma
When a biopsy has revealed melanoma, the first thing doctors will need to determine is the “stage” of the cancer, which is defined by how large the primary tumor is, and how far the cancer has spread. This is very important because these factors will determine your treatment and outlook for your recovery.
Overview of Stages O-IV
Stages are labeled using O and Roman Numerals I through IV (1-4).
- A lower number, like one (I), means the melanoma has not spread far.
- The higher the number, the farther it has spread and the more serious the cancer
Tis (tumor in situ) Tumor is limited to the epidermis. No invasion of surrounding tissues or lymph nodes or distant sites.
Risk: Very Low
Stage 0 Melanoma (In situ)
In Stage 0 melanoma, the malignant tumor is still confined to the upper layers of the skin. This means that the cancer cells are only in the outer layer of the skin and have not grown any deeper. The term for this is in situ, which means “in place” in Latin. There is no evidence the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or distant sites (metastasis).Learn more about Stage 0Treatment Options for Stage 0
Subclasses 1A, 1B
Differentiated by tumor thickness [Breslow depth]. It hasn’t spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites.
Stage I Melanoma (localized tumor)
Stage I melanoma is defined as a melanoma that is up to 2mm thick. A Stage I melanoma may or may not have ulceration. There is no evidence the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or distant sites (metastasis). There are two subclasses of Stage I Melanoma: 1A, 1B.Learn more about Stage ITreatment Options for Stage I
Subclasses IIA, IIB, IIC
Differentiated by tumor thickness [Breslow depth]. It hasn’t spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites
Risk: Intermediate for occurring again in the same spot or spreading to distant sites
Stage II Melanoma (localized tumor)
Stage II melanoma is defined by tumor thickness, and ulceration. There is no evidence the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or distant sites (metastasis). There are three subclasses of Stage II: IIA, IIB, IIC.Learn more about Stage IITreatment Options for Stage II
It is important to get a second opinion
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Subclasses IIIA, IIIB, IIIC
Defined by number of lymph nodes to which it has spread. It can, but it need not have ulceration. Different whether the spread to lymph nodes, can be detected microscoptically or macroscoptically.
Risk: Intermediate to high for occurring again in the same spot or spreading to distant sites
Microscoptically = seen by pathologist after biopsy or dissection
Macroscoptically = seen by naked eye or felt by hand
Stage III Melanoma (regional spread)
Stage III melanoma is defined by the level of lymph node involvement and ulceration. In Stage III melanoma, the depth of the melanoma no longer matters.There is no evidence the cancer has spread to distant sites (metastasis). There are three subclasses of Stage III Melanoma: IIIA, IIIB, IIIC.Learn more about Stage IIITreatment Options for Stage III
Subclasses M1a, M1b, M1c
Characterized by: Location of different metastases, number and size of tumors, elevated LDH
M1a: spread to distant skin, the subcutaneous layer or to distant lymph nodes. Serum LDH is normal
M1b: the tumor has metastasized to the lung, LDH is normal
M1c: tumor has metastasized to vital organs other than the lungs, and serum LDH is normal
or There are any distant metastases with elevated LDH
Stage IV Melanoma (metastasis beyond regional lymph nodes)
Stage IV melanoma occurs when the melanoma has spread beyond the original site and regional lymph nodes to more distant areas of the body.The level of LDH (serum lactate dehydrogenase) may or may not be elevated. The most common sites of metastasis are to vital organs (lungs, abdominal organs, brain, and bone) and soft tissues (skin, subcutaneous tissues) and distant lymph nodes (lymph nodes beyond the primary tumor region).Learn more about Stage IVTreatment Options for Stage IV
Brain metastases, a specific form of Stage IV melanoma, are one of the most common and difficult-to-treat complications of melanoma. They differ from all other metastases in terms of risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.Learn More About Brain Metastases